Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Spice Substitutions

Basic Ingredient Substitutions

Here are some of the suggestions cited most frequently. The substitution tips
for which there was the most general consensus and which used the most common
ingredients are listed.

Your final product made with the substituted ingredient may differ slightly from
the original food, but still be acceptable in flavor, texture and appearance.

Allspice
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves

Apple Pie Spice
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg plus 1/8 teaspoon
cardamom

Baking Powder, Double-Acting
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
Baking Soda
There is NO substitute for baking soda

Butter
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute:
- 1 cup regular margarine
- 1 cup vegetable shortening (for baking)

- An equal amount of oil can be substituted for a similar portion of MELTED butter
if the recipe specifies using MELTED butter.

TIP 1: According to the National Association of Margarine Manufacturers, you can
tell "if the product is regular margarine by checking the Nutrition Facts:
a one tablespoon serving will have 100 calories." Products that contain less than
80 percent fat often give the fat percentage on the front of the package.

If the margarine is labeled "light," "lower fat," "reduced fat," "reduced calorie/
diet" or "fat-free" or is called a "vegetable oil spread," you may be less
successful substituting it for butter OR for regular margarine in baking and
in some cooking procedures. These products are higher in water and lower in fat
content and won't perform in the same way as regular butter or margarine.

For additional information about using the various forms of margarine in recipes,
check the Web site of the National Association of Margarine Manufacturers:
www.margarine.org/howtousemargarine.html

TIP 2: There is no standard procedure to substitute liquid oil for solid shortening
in cooking. Oil is 100 percent fat, while butter, margarine and other solid
shortenings are lower in fat on a volume-for-volume basis.

Also, for some recipes, solid shortening helps incorporate air into the batter
when it is whipped with other ingredients such as sugar and eggs. If you try to
whip these ingredients with oil, your baked product is likely to be more compact
and oily in texture. Your most successful substitution occurs if your recipe calls
for MELTED butter, in which case you can usually substitute an equal amount of oil.


Buttermilk
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough regular milk to make
1 cup (allow to stand 5 minutes)

Chili Sauce
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tablespoons vinegar,
1/4 teaspoon cinnamon, dash of ground cloves and dash of allspice

Chocolate, Unsweetened
Amount: 1 ounce
Substitute: 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or regular margarine or
vegetable oil

Cornstarch (for thickening)
Amount: 1 tablespoon
Substitute: 2 tablespoons flour
TIP: Liquids thickened with cornstarch will be somewhat translucent while flour
gives a more opaque appearance. Cornstarch will thicken a liquid almost immediately. A flour-based sauce or gravy must be cooked longer to thicken and will have a floury taste if undercooked. Joy of Cooking cookbook (Scribner, 1997) advises when using flour as a substitution for cornstarch in sauces and gravies, that you simmer it for about 3 minutes AFTER it has thickened to help avoid a raw taste of flour.

Cornstarch-thickened liquids are more likely to thin if overheated or cooked too
long. Regardless of whether you use cornstarch or flour, mix it with a little
cold water or other cold liquid, about two parts liquid to one part thickener,
before adding it to the rest of the liquid . (Note: when you mix flour with fat
to make a roux for use as a thickener, you would not dissolve it in liquid first.)


Cream, Whipping
Amount:1 cup unwhipped
Substitute: If you wish to use a commercial pre-whipped whipped cream or whipped
cream substitute rather than whip your own cream, use the guideline that 1 cup
UNWHIPPED whipping cream expands to 2 cups when WHIPPED. For example, if your
recipe called for 1 cup of cream to make whipped cream, you could substitute
2 cups of an already whipped product.

Egg
Amount: 1 whole egg
Substitute:
- 1/4 cup egg substitute (examples include: Egg Beaters, Second Nature, Scramblers);
check label for specific directions
- Reconstituted powdered eggs; follow package directions

- 2 tablespoons mayonnaise (suitable for use in cake batter). NOTE: If you type
"mayonnaise cake recipe" into your favorite Internet search engine, you'll
find several recipes for cakes made with mayonnaise and NO eggs. This may help
you decide if this substitution will work for your cake.

- 1/2 teaspoon baking powder plus 1 tablespoon vinegar plus 1 tablespoon liquid
(for baking use only)

TIP: If you don't use eggs very often, you may find it helpful to keep some
powdered eggs on hand.


Flour, All-Purpose White Flour
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1/2 cup whole wheat flour plus 1/2 cup all-purpose flour.
TIP: It's generally recommended that you replace no more than half the all-purpose
white flour with whole wheat flour. Too much whole wheat flour in a recipe calling
for all-purpose flour might result in a reduced volume and a heavier product.


Flour, Cake
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Flour, Self-Rising
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking
powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt

Garlic
Amount: 1 small clove
Substitute: 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder


Herbs, Fresh
Amount: 1 tablespoon, finely cut
Substitute:
- 1 teaspoon dried leaf herbs
- 1/2 teaspoon ground dried herbs

Lemon Zest (fresh grated lemon peel)
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Marshmallows, Miniature
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute: 10 large marshmallows

Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings)
Amount: 1 cup
Substitute:
- 1 cup sour cream
- 1 cup yogurt
- 1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
- Or use any of the above for part of the mayonnaise

Mustard, Dry (in cooked mixtures)
Amount: 1 teaspoon
Substitute: 1 tablespoon prepared mustard

Onion
Amount: 1 small or 1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion
Substitute: 1 tablespoon instant minced onion
TIP: Dried onion may be added directly to moist foods such as soups, gravies,
sauces and salad dressings. You may need to rehydrate it with a little water
before adding it to drier foods. Check package directions -- one brand advises
adding an equal amount of water and letting the dried onion stand 5 to 10 minutes.


Pasta (substituting one for another)
Amount: 4 cups COOKED
Substitute:The National Pasta Association suggests these substitution ratios.
Check www.ilovepasta.org/faqs.html#Q10 for more information.
- 8 ounces of UNCOOKED elbow macaroni, medium shells, rotini, twists, spirals,
wagon wheels, bow ties, mostaccioli, penne, radiatore, rigatoni, spaghetti, angel
hair, linguine, vermicelli and fettuccine all produce about 4 cups COOKED pasta

- Use about twice as much UNCOOKED egg noodles to provide 4 cups COOKED pasta.
Approximately 8 ounces UNCOOKED egg noodles equal 2 1/2 cups COOKED noodles.




No comments:

Post a Comment

There was an error in this gadget